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Sport-Tiedje Table tennis-ABC




Services are arbitrary for singles. The service is done behind the table and the bat has to be visible for the opponent. When the net is touched, the service needs to be repeated as long as the ball hits the opposing side. When it is catched in the net, it is a fault.
There is an additional rule for services for doubles. The service is always done on the right side and diagonally hit (left half of the opponent). If this is not the case, it is a faulty service.
Ball speed

Table tennis balls can reach speeds up to 180 km/h. They have to be as fast as 20 km/h at least, otherwise they suffer a reduction in stream and fall down. Regarding these high speeds, it is amazing that the hand of the player reaches hardly 50 km/h, the bat rarely 70 km/h. Those high ball speeds result mainly from the point of hitting of bat and ball.
Ballon defense

It is a highly defended ball returning to the opponent by topspin. It is often a good possibility of defense of hard topspins or smashes. Although the ball is flying very high, it is difficult to take aggressively balls played in balloon defense. Because of low ball speed and strong spin, the ball takes off much flatter than it comes off. It is difficult to judge and to control.
Ball bucket training

It is an effective workout in method of repetition of high intensity. The coach passes continuously the balls to the player from the Ball bucket but does not take the return, he just observes them. By different placing of balls, the player has to adjust to different games within shortest time. The coach can precisely exercise the weaknesses of a player.

The surface of a bat has a great influence on speed and rotation, whereby a table tennis ball can be played. Own playing features and those of the opponent are important as well for choosing a surface.
Nowadays, there is an almost immense multitude of surfaces, which are mainly important for professional use. There is an appropriate surface for each player (defensive, allround or offensive). Everyone develops its own type to play table tennis after longer periods of playing. It is recommended for beginners to use an allround surface. Ball control plays a decisive role for leisure and hobby users as well as beginners. You should attach a great importance on good control features when purchasing bats.

The Asian people is „crazy for table tennis“. Table tennis is the national sport No. 1 in China. Among the top 20 of the world ranking list, there are relatively many Chinese – this is proved by the quality of their play. They differ from most Europeans in their grip position, the penholder, which is quite common in the Asian region. Chinese have presented world champions for women and men – with few exceptions – for the last 10 years.

The DTTB (Deutscher Tischtennis Bund – German table tennis association) consists of about 10,000 associations with almost 650,000 members and is one of the biggest members of the international table tennis association (ITTF) and the German top sports associations.
It was founded in Berlin in 1925. Since then, it has been presented by mainly voluntary work in respective regional associations or clubs.

The ball rotates on its own axis in addition to the forward movement caused by the bat. The ball describes a trajectory diverging from straight trajectory towards own rotation.

This stands for the warm-up before the match. Being right-handed, you start with forehand counteracting. The ball is diagonally played over the net in an even rhythm. Then warming up with topspin follows, while the opponent blocks the ball. It is the same procedure for the backhand side.

This ball is played over the board by a tilting movement out of the wrist. The flip is played to undercut balls which are too short and too flat for topspin. The flip is especially used for aggressive return. Placing is decisive, which avoids quick topspins of the opponent. In general, there are forehand and backhand flip.
Speed glue ban

In September 2008, the speed blue ban came into effect. The reason was the death of a player, which happened by inhaling solvents of a speed glue over a longer period of time. Most toxic substances contained in glues get into air and human respiratory tract when the glues are opened. The advantage of speed glueing was the softer sponge under the surface, which increased the catapult effect while playing. The surface became faster and gave the player an advantage regarding speed and rotation of the ball.
It is especially offensive players who suffer under this ban and have to change completely.
Grip types

There are four different types to grasp a table tennis bat in the European table tennis.
  • Straight
  • Concave
  • Anatomical
  • Conical
The straight grip is relatively easy to turn and you can vary between forehand and backhand side. It is often preferred by defense or material players because of these features. Offensive players need grip ends, which are easier to fix and can be hold with less symptomes of tiredness. Therefore, they often use conical, concave, and anatomical grips.

The bat wood in table tennis is glued together in several layers, so called veneers. It has to be made of at least 85% of wood (according to rules of the ITTF). Regarding the remaining 15%, synthetic layers can be used as well.
However, wood is not wood at all.
  • Hard types of wood (i.e. walnut or beech) increase speed and are mainly used for offensive wood.
  • Soft types of wood (i.e. poplar or birch) are used for defensive wood.
Combining hard and soft wood is also possible. They offer pace as well as ball control. In contrast to surfaces, a table tennis wood is partially played for several years. Therefore, it is important that playing features remain the same for a long time.
Besides materials, the workmanship (glueing) also effects the quality of the wood of a bat

Table tennis wood can have different features:
  • quicker/slower ball take off
  • lower/higher catapult effect
  • flatter/higher ball take off
  • light/heavy weight
  • thin/thick - many/few veneer layers
  • fixed/elastic playing feeling
  • few/many vibration

The International Table Tennis Federation (abbreviated: ITTF) regulates the worldwide valid guidelines and norms for table tennis. It is responsible for admission of table tennis surfaces up to regulation of „speed glue ban“ in international area. The ITTF organizes big competitions, i.e. the table tennis worldchampionships (in Dortmund, 2012) or the ITTF Pro Tour.
Jeder gegen Jeden

Turnierform, bei der alle Spieler eine Mindestanzahl an Spielen absolvieren. Jeder Turnierteilnehmer tritt gleich oft gegen alle anderen an ohne das ein Ausscheiden erfolgt. Am Ende steht ein Gewinner fest. Dieser hat aus allen durchgeführten Spielen die meisten Punkte gesammelt. Diese Turnierform steht dem K.O.-System gegenüber, bei dem man nach einem verlorenen Spiel aus dem Turnier ausscheidet.

The JOOLA Tischtennis GmbH + Co. KG is one of the best-known brands for table tennis products. The company, which was founded in 1950, offers table tennis tables, bats, balls, surfaces, textiles, and shoes. The name of the company derives from both words JOOss and LAndau. Until today, the products of German origin are used for international competitions.
Combi bat

This is a combination of different types of surfaces of a bat (pimples inner surfaces and pimples outer surfaces). They are often used by defensive players, who leave the opponent in the dark, which spin they will use to play the ball by turning the bat. The opponent has constantly to keep an eye on the bat – this increases the number of influencing factors and makes the game more difficult. Allround and defensive players use the combi bat to compensate their own weaknesses (i.e. weakness of backhand).
Counter ball

This is a straight ball with less spin of middle to high speed. European players use it almost only for warming up. It was the preferred playing technique of Asian Penholder players in former yeras. Among penholders of world's toplist, the topspin is the game-decisive technique nowadays. Counterballs have become almost impossible because of development of features of material.
Kong Linghui

The Chinese table tennis player is one of the best players worldwide and is now a Head Coach of China's National Women's Team.
Long Ma

Ma Long is a Chinese table tennis player, who is among the top 10 of the ITTF world ranking list for men. He uses shakehand to hold the bat.
Air resistance

Air resistance influences decisively the trajectory of the ball besides push and gravity as well as rotation for a sports with a light projectile which is set in motion by high speed – like for table tennis. By enlarging the ball diameter and resulting increase in air resistance, the speed of the play is thought to be slowed down for the purposes of tv efficacy. Improved bat materials and higher athletic values of the play counteracted this intention.
Muscle exertion

Almost all parts of the body are exercised while playing table tennis. Footwork is as important as exercising arm muscles. Back and pelvis muscles are demanded for fast-strength exercises. Even the brain is exercised regarding quick reactions.

A match always includes several match sets. This means, a player has to win the number of sets determined before to decide the match for oneself. The match sets are the following in the DTTB:
  • Team play:
    • 3 match sets
  • Individual play:
    • Doubles and mixed doubles:
      3 match sets
    • Women/Men:
      either 3 or 4 match sets in singles
    • Young / Pupils:
      Federal events:
      either 3 or 4 match sets in singles
      Events of regional and member associations:
      3 match sets in singles
    • Seniors:
      3 match sets in singles
Net set

A Net set consists of a net, a suspension, and the poles including clamps used for mounting at the table. The net is hung up on a cord, which is fixed to vertical poles, which are 15.25cm high. The outsides of the poles are 15.25cm on the whole length. The lower edge of the net has to be as close as possible to the playing surface and the sides of the net have to be as close as possible to the poles.
Ovtcharov, Dimitrij

He is a German table tennis player coming from Ukraine. The right-handed player uses shakehand as technique. At the moment, he is number 10 in the current world ranking list.
Playing surface (table tennis table)

Competition suitable tables have to provide the dimensions of 2.7 m x 1.525m. The surface has to be exactly 76.2cm above the floor. The net divides the table in two halves of same size of 1.37m x 1.525m. Each half is divided along the length in another two halves by means of 3mm line (centre line). There are white lines of 20mm on the edges of the table: the base line (parallel to the net) and the sideline (vertical to the net). The surface of the table has to be anti-glare and dark. Dark green and blue are common colours.
The playing surface of a competition board can be made of any material, but it has to be guaranteed that a ball – corresponding to directives -, which falls from a height of 30cm, will constantly take off about 23cm – everywhere.
There are no rules for weatherproof outdoor table tennis boards. Melamine resin boards or aluminium compound boards are often used. Both these surfaces are weather and waterproof and extremely ideal for playing in the open.
Penholder grip

There are tow different types for penholder bat position:
  • Japanese Penholder style – bat with long, angular grip, fingers of the player are extended on the backside of the bat
  • Chinese Penholder style – bat with short, flat grip, fingers of the player are shortly bent on the backside of the bat
The Japanese style to hold the bat helps the „spin-pointed“ topspin play and makes an active blocking on the backhand side difficult.
The Chinese alternative makes active blocking and even hard hits possible thanks to higher flexibility in the wrist on the backhand side. The topspin play is much more dynamic and speed-pointed.
Ping Pong

„Ping Pong“ stands as synonym for table tennis and is mainly used for leisure or hobby alternative of the sport in nowadays usage. It aims at keeping the ball as long as possible in the play.
The term „Ping Pong“ originated early from playing sounds which are caused by the ball hitting on the table...Ping...Pong...Ping...Pong... Coming from a business trip in the US, James Gibb brought along coloured celluloid balls in 1891. These caused the sounds known today, which are closely combined with it. In 1891, the business man John Jacques de Croydon, a friend of Gibb, let protect the term „Ping Pong“ at the English patent office and sold the rights.

It is a synonym for the table tennis table.
Table tennis board is probably more common in everyday usage nowadays.

Q-TTR stands for the quarter ranking list. Four times a year, complete ranking list values of players on DTTB level are announced. These values serve as basis for team line-up and can be used for placing in individual play.
Records (in table tennis)

Top speed: 180 km/h
Longest rally: 8,5 hours
Longest permanent: 105 hours and 8 min (in the open)
Longest doubles: 102 hours playing time
Longest singles: 168 hours playing time
Most rallies per minute: 173
Maximum rotations for topspin: 50 times per second

A set ends, when a player has achieved 11 match points and has at least a two-points lead, i.e. 11:4, 11:9, 12:10, 13:11. If it is 10:10, the set continues. The right to start changes after each point. The extra-time ends, when a player has won a two-points lead.

Unterschnittball, der über dem Tisch gespielt wird. In höheren Klassen wird er beinahe nur noch als sicherer Rückschlag auf schwierige Aufschläge oder starke Unterschnittbälle verwendet. Selbst moderne Abwehrspieler streben (zumindest bei eigenem Aufschlag) an, möglichst als erster „anzuziehen“ (auf Topspin-Spiel zu wechseln), um dem Gegner unter Druck zu setzen.

It is an alternative of topspin with side cut. The ball is touched with a tangential bat motion – with more or less horizontal component. Thereby, it gets a sidewards rotation. The ball jumps away on the side of the opponent when the sidespin is successful.

It stands for a style to grasp a bat as if you would shake hands. Three of five fingers (middle, ring, and little finger) clasp the grip of the bat. The thumb rests on forehand, the index finger on the backside of the bat blade. This position (by thumb and index finger) results in a better control of the bat angle and an increased fixation in the hand and a much better recognition of the ball contact. All in all, the control is better than when the grip is hold by five fingers.
Table tennis ball

A table tennis ball is round, hollow, and made of celluloid. Since 2000, the diameter of the ball has been 40mm and it weighs about 2.7gr. Until then, the diameter was 38mm and it weighted about 2.5gr. The enlargement by 2mm was meant to slow down the table tennis sport and make it more attractive for tv. However, the surface and wood industry thwarted this plan, because the new surfaces and wood absolutely compensated this loss of speed.
Hit zone

A great importance is attached to the enlargement of the optimal hit zone for production of modern table tennis wood. Here, the ball is accelerated the highest possible but is still under control.

The ball is touched with almost none feed by an extremely fast upwards motion of the bat. Out of the given rotation (forwards), a trajectory bent downwards is caused, whereby the ball takes off flatter than normal on the table. The ball can be hit with a higher forwards speed without being out on the rear table edge, because the trajectory of the curve for same speed is shorter than that of a „normal straight“ hit.
The bat angle plays a decisive role for hitting of the ball. The topspin is one of the most important and most popular types of hitting for table tennis. It can be played with up to 50 rotations per second.

The ball is touched with less feed but an extremely fast downwards motion. It gets a backwards rotation, which provides a more or less strong buoyancy according to the intensity. This extends the trajectory. The forwards speed is low and gets even reduced by backwards rotation when the ball hits the table.
Viktor Barna

Victor Barna (*August, 24th, 1911 in Budapest - † February, 28th 1972 in Lima) was a Hungarian table tennis player. Until today, he is the most successful table tennis player. He won 22 world championships between 1929 and 1939: 5 singles titles, 8 titles for doubles, twice for mixed, and 7 times for team.

Table tennis tables can be subdivided into weatherproof outdoor table tennis boards and non-weatherproof indoor table tennis boards. The indoor tables should not be used in the open even when the weather is fine or the sun is shining. The material (often clipboards) absorbs humidity and can soak. Furthermore, surfaces of indoor table tennis boards are not UV resistant and bleach rapidly or lose their good playing features. Please mind whether the table is for indoor or outdoor use before purchasing. If it is for outdoor use, purchasing a weatherproof table tennis board is recommmended.

The top 20 players on the world ranking list mainly come from Asian region, where table tennis has become the national sport No. 1 since many years. Among men, the German Timo Boll has represented the world's top for many years. The chart below shows some names, which are also among the first 20 besides him in the current world ranking list (02/2012).

Men Women
Timo Boll (GER) Ning Ding (CHN)
Long Ma (CHN) Shiwen Lui (CHN)
Hao Wang (CHN) Tianwei Feng (SIN)
Se Hyuk Joo (KOR) Kasumi Ishikawa (JPN)
Jun Mizutani (JPN) Ai Fukuhara (JPN)
Dimitrij Ovtcharov (GER) Huajun Jiang (HKG)
Vladimir Samsonov (BLR) Jianduo Wu (GER)

YUE Guo - The Chinese is the youngest female player, who ever hold a worldchampionship final. She was born in 1988 and participated in the final in Qatar in 2004, being just 15 years old. She became a member of the national team (adults) already one year ago. Since 2010, she has got a place in the ITTF Hall of Fame.

It describes a group of synthetic compounds, which are made of nitrocellulose (white, fibrous, unscented, tasteless mass; colloquially known as guncotton) and camphor (colourless pigment). It is the first synthetic at all and the material table tennis balls are made of.
Features of a table tennis ball can only be achieved by few materials. Balls were made of celluloid worldwide until 20 years ago. This synthetic can neither be casted nor injected in shapes nor inflated in shapes. This makes production much more costly than the insignificant ball seems to be. Celluloid serves producing imitations of different luxury goods made of natural products like ivory, amber, coral, ebony, horn substance or mother-of-pearl.
Zhang Jike

Zhang Jike (is a Chinese table tennis player. At the moment (2011), he is world champion in singles.
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