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Which different kinds of training methods for strength training can be done ?
The following kinds of training are differentiated: 

  • Strength-stamina exercising: Muscles are exercised by many repetitions (20-30) with small weight. The exercising person accomplishes 2 to 4 series with a short break of 1 minute at most for the method of strength-stamina.

  • Hypertrophy training: This workout causes an increase in volume of the cross-section of the muscle. The used weight does not permit more than 6 to 12 repetitions. A workout session includes 3 to 8 series. Have a break of about 3 minutes between the series.

  • Maximum strength training: The improvement of maximum strength is of immediate importance. Therefore, exercising with maximum weights is recommended. The weight is chosen, so that you reach a point of exhaustion after approximately 3 to 6 repetitions. Have a break of 2 to 3 minutes between the series 4 to 6.


Which muscle should be exercised to lose weight ?

  • Exercising separate muscles is not successful. The whole body has to be exercised to achieve any success. You cannot lose weight on zones which are intensively exercised. A muscular whole body workout, which is combined with stamina, is recommendable for weight reduction.


Stamina or strength training - which one is the best alternative ?

  • Both are necessary and important for general health. Stamina training is very valuable for the cardiovascular system and stimulation of fatty metabolism. However, stamina training cannot replace strength training. Precise strength training strengthens muscles and joints and the vertebral column is relieved. A combination of stamina and strength training is recommended to have the desired effect on the whole body.


Is it necessary to warm-up before doing strength training ?

  • Absolutely ! By warming up, pulled muscles and injuries are avoided as far as possible. Before you exercise with heavy weights, an additional warm-up is recommended. Please mind not to cool down too much in between separate series.


Which exercises should be done to achieve strength-stamina ?

  • The number of repetitions is important for exercising strength-stamina. An efficient whole body workout, whereas 3 series with 20 to 30 repetitions are accomplished, is a useful strength-stamina workout. The most important muscle groups should be demanded.

  • Arms: Push-ups - Feet and hands are put on the floor, eyes towards the floor. Shoulders, hips, and ankles form a straight line. Lower the body towards the floor by bending arms. Moving upwards is inititated by stretching the arms at the lowest possible point. The body rests in a straight line while performing the whole motion.

  • Abdomen: Beetle - Stretch arms and legs one after the other in back position. Before starting the exercise, arms as well as legs are slightly lifted from the floor. The left hand and the right knee are brought together above the abdominal cavity. Then change to right hand and left knee. Please mind that the vertebral column rests on the floor, whereas abdominal muscles are actively tensed.

  • Back: Jumping jack - Arms and legs are stretched lengthwise in abdominal position. You look to the floor and toes are pulled towards the body. Arms and legs are slightly lifted from the floor and are spread and brought together at the same time. Tense actively the back muscles, so that knees and thighs hardly touch the floor. 

  • Legs: Knee-bend - Stand with feet shoulder-width apart with toes slightly turned outside. The body's centre of gravity is lowered and lifted by bending the knees (thighs are parallel to the floor). Please mind that knees are always slightly bent. While lowering, the torso keeps upright and the bottom is pushed backwards. Knees should not be moved too far in front of the toes while doing the exercise.


How do I set a wise goal myself for the workout ?

  • A goal has to be measurable so it can be achieved. Furthermore, a fixed date for achieving the goal is very important. This helps not to always put off the workout.

  • Keep close to reality: Half a kilogram less on the scales is quite doable. Successes in stamina should be recognized after 4 weeks. Muscle tightening should arise after 8 weeks.

  • It is useful to write a workout journal. It should contain a plan which can be crossed off after each workout session. That's motivation !


Is it true that you get quicker in shape by vibration training ?

  • Vibration plates strengthen effectively muscles. Muscles tense automatically by vibration and more muscle fibres are activated. Almost 95% of the muscles, including deep muscles as well, are activated. Flexibility, bone density, and posture are improved. However, the body is quickly strained by the "shake". At the beginning, the vibration training should not be done longer than 10 minutes and twice a week at most. In case of problems with the musculoskeletal system respectively after surgeries, you should contact a physician before using a vibration plate.


Is there any perfect workout plan for the weekend ?

  • The balance of intensity and breaks has to be reconsidered so the body is not strained. It is useful to include the Friday in the workout plan - the workout would be distributed among those three days.

    Friday: relaxed strength training (i.e. fitness course)

    Saturday: longer stamina session (jogging, cycling or skating)

    Sunday: intensive strength training or a mix of cardio and strength


Does it make any difference whether you exercise 3 times one hour or once three hours ?

  • No ! You are more successful exercising 3 times one hour than once three hours. The body adjusts to the workout stimulus and the regenertion is better for exercising three times one hour. A regular and varied workout program is more effective for the body.


What kind of sports is ideal to exercise optimally the back ?

  • The optimal kind of sports would be a combination of swimming, rowing, and climbing. The back muscles are constantly activated from different directions.


Which exercises are the easiest to exercise the back ?

  • Chin-ups: Grasp the chin-up bar as far apart as possible. Thumbs show inwards. Now, pull the body slowly upwards and mind that it neither swings forwards nor backwards.

  • Erector spinae: Fix ankles behind the foot roller and put down the hips on the paddings. The pubic bone is not touched by the paddings. Arms are crossed in front of the chest or at the back of the head. Stretch the torso slightly over the horizontal. Hold this position for a short time and lower the torso.

What do isometric exercises stand for ?

  • Isometric exercises mean that you suddenly press with all available power against a resistance. The strength development is realized without change in length of the muscle. The resistance can be imagined or real. The affected muscle parts are especially activated and the circulation in general.

  • Isometric exercises are mainly recommended for increase in concentration and for relaxation.


What does interval training mean ?

  • This training method is characterized by a systematic change of exertion and relaxation phases. It serves the improvement of stamina fitness.



How can you avoid a pulse which is too high while running/jogging ?

  • There are more and more people who move too fast. Persons, who have not been jogging for a longer time, should start walking. Choose an intensity, so that the felt exertion is not higher than "a bit exhausting", because this is the only way to keep the pace. The pulse will get used to it and lower after several workout sessions. Starting can also be facilitated by interval training (jogging and walking).


Is strength training also suitable for women ?

  • Yes, most shape-desires of women can be fulfilled by intensive strength training. At first, women should take less weight and do more repetitions for muscle building. Always start slowly and increase from time to time. Unless you look for the body-builder effect and muscles should be visible.


Which kind of sports is very effective ?

  • A kind of sports is effective, when the highest possible calorie consumption can be measured. The more muscles are used for a special kind of sports, the more calories are consumed. Example: while exercising on a treadmill or a crosstrainer, there are more muscles active than while cycling.


Is it true that fat burning only starts after 30 mintues while exercising stamina sports ?

  • In general, fat burning depends upon intensity and duration of the exertion. The longer the workout session takes, the more fat burning is stimulated. Fat is burnt from the beginning. The distribution shifts with duration of the exertion. It is mainly the carbohydrate depots which are emptied within the first 30 minutes. Then, an increased fat burning takes place.


Are there any mistakes you can make while exercising ?

  • Unfortunately, inexperienced persons can still make a lot of mistakes. Avoid following mistakes so your body doesn't suffer from it, bad postures arise or injuries occur:

  • Do not go hungry before the workout ! The body constantly needs an appropriate fuel to withstand daily exertions and upcoming workout. Otherwise, the performance potential cannot be achieved.

  • Well-defined abdominals are not the ultimate in life ! Well-exercised abdominals are the best visible advertisement of the body for a good fitness. However, consider the rest of the body as well and all other  muscles should be exercised as well. The core of a workout should not only include the abdominal muscles. The lower part of the back is important as well. Otherwise, it can quickly end up with bad postures and pains.

  • Do not take too much weight ! As a rule: technique is more important than weight. You should always mind this rule. The risk of injuries is minimized respectively precluded by using appropriate weights.

  • Take the workout seriously ! Sitting bored on a machine and wait until the workout is finished, is not successful at all. Do sports in order to sweat and to burn calories.


What are the reasons for back pains after a workout ?

  • Often, this has to do with the accomplishment of the exercise done before. Weights can be falsely lifted from the floor. Please mind that the back is always kept straight and that heavy dumbbells/barbells are solely lifetd with the help of leg muscles. Squat down, keep the back as straight and upright as possible, and take the dumbbell/barbell. Please concentrate on body position and tension for all exercises. This is the only way to avoid bad postures.


Which breathing is best while exercising ?

  • Exhale while lifting and inhale while lowering the weights. Integrate breathing in exercises so you get used to it and do not have to think of it. Regular deep breathing is recommended instead of forced respiration during expulsion.


Why do some people get red in the face while exercising ?

  • Most people get red in the face for high intensities or warm outdoor temperatures. This is medically harmless. Often, people having light skin are affected. The reddening of complexion is nothing else than a widening of skin vessels - blood pressure increases while exerting. The skin calls over cooling effect and a better heat diversion. Unfortunately, there is nothing that can be done while exercising. It is just a normal process which differs from person to person. Condition should be exercised, nevertheless. The better the condition is, the slower increases the pulse respectively the reddening in the face is less.


What is the best way to build condition ?

  • First of all, you should start exercising slowly and improve with time. You could start with light jogging and increase step by step the pace. Swimming is also very good to build condition. It is recommended to combine the workout with light strength exercises for muscle building, i.e. exercises with dumbbells.


Which muscles are trained while exercising on a rowing machine ?

  • Rowing demands leg, back, and arm muscles. In principle, the whole body is exercised. This workout is also ideal for improving stamina.


Less weight and more repetitions or vice versa ?

  • At the beginning of the workout, many repetitions with less weight should be done, because the body (respectively muscles) has to get used to the activity. Many repetitions improve strength-stamina and form the basis of a well-balanced muscle-building workout.
    It is mainly important to do the exercises correctly. Having a break between the sets is important as well. Choose the weights so you can manage 20 to 25 repetitions per workout set.  


Which effect does exercising on a treadmill have ?

  • Exercising on a treadmill is a good basis to exercise stamina. Legs, hips, and bottom are trained as well. Furthermore, alternatives in exercising are quickly to realize thanks to easy adjustment possibilities. Incline and speed can be adjusted and changed - if necessary.   


Are there any fitness exercises without accessories ?

  • Of course, you can do a multitude of exercises without accessories (i.e. dumbbells). The own body weight is absolutely enough at the beginning. Some examples: sit-ups, push-ups, knee-bends, "cycling in the air", dips, etc. 


Stretching - before or after the workout ?

  • Muscles should be warmed up before you start exercising. Stretching exercises before the workout do not increase fitness - so, they are not absolutely necessary. Regarding prevention of injuries, stretching exercises do not have negative effects on the body. 
    After the workout, stretching exercises are part of a cool-down. Loose moving and light stretching exercises support regeneration of affected muscles. In principle: stretch whenever it feels good.


Which muscles are exercised while jumping on a trampoline ?

  • Jumping on a trampoline is one of the best and most joint-gentle sports. Furthermore, it is an excellent stress killer. Stamina and strength are trained thanks to the exertion. A precise muscle training is not replaced by jumping. Trunk stability, body coordination, and sense of balance are optimally trained.


Which sports are gentle to the joints ?

  • Swimming (especially backstroke, because breaststroke can strain knee joints and vertebral column) aqua-jogging, walking in plain areas, cycling, and jumping on a trampoline. Please mind that you only feel any pain in the joints, when they are exerted too less. Regular activity is the only aid.


How do you breath while running ?

  • Of course, one of the most important conditions is to exercise at a speed where you can still talk while running. Furthermore, regular and strong breathing is very important. This is the only way that lungs absorb sufficient oxygen. The running posture should always be relaxed. This means that arms are slightly bent and swing on the sides of the body according to the running rhythm.


What does a split program stand for ?

  • The workout is splitted. Instead of exercising all muscle groups on one day, separate groups are distributed among several days and get exercised. Therefore, usually, there are rarely more than two muscle groups exerted per workout. The goal is to train muscles at a higher intensity. So you can dedicate your whole power to the respective muscle group per workout session. The advantage of this program is that the muscle (muscle group) has more time for regeneration respectively growth.


What does fitness boxing stand for ?

  • Fitness boxing is one of the trend sports in 2011 and is an effective workout program to get in shape. Stamina, strength, speed, coordination, condition, and flexibility are trained. You are excellently equiped with punching bag, gloves, wraps, and skipping rope. Elements of aerobics are combined with martial arts techniques while exercising fitness boxing. There is no direct body contact (known from boxing), because it is a pure fitness workout. Many calories are burnt by continuous motion. Fitness boxing does not include difficult choreographies and is easy to learn for persons of each age.


How can you keep in shape with a trampoline ?

  • There are many possibilities to keep in shape and moving on a trampoline: rocking/bouncing, walking, going, twisting, jumping, straddle vault, jumping on one leg, jumping jack. However, there is also the possibility to integrate flexibands or small dumbbells in the exercises to exert precisely some muscles in addition.


What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic training ?

  • If you translate literally aerobic training, it means "training with air". Fats and carbohydrates are burnt in the muscle cells with anaerobic workout. This serves energy supply. The cardiovascular system as well as lung, and metabolism are demanded. The goal of an anaerobic stamina training is a better oxygen use. Typical sports are jogging, cycling or swimming. Pulse should be constantly controlled. The heart rate for aerobic workout should be at 60 to 70% of maximum heart rate, to aim at a precise fat burning.

    Regarding aerobic training, burning of sugar (for energy production) takes place with the help of oxygen. This can already happen at low physical exertion (long distance run for short distance). The body produces sufficient energy to manage metabolism. However, regarding fast runs, the body is so strongly exerted that aerobic energy production is not sufficient. Carbohydrates are transformed into energy with oxygen (this takes place by lactic acid fermentation).

    If the body has suddenly to cope with high performance (i.e. lifting a weight), it uses anaerobic energy supply. The use of energy depots takes place without oxygen. 


What does over-training mean ?

  • An over-training is nothing else than an overload reaction of the body, which is mostly caused by a training volume which is too high and phases of regeneration which are too short.

    Despite sufficient training, it happens again and again that people get more tired and weaker. The reasons are too less phases of relaxation. Training as well as recovery phases are important for the body in the same way. Furthermore, deficiency nutrition is a reason for over-workout, because the body is not sufficiently supplied with nutrients, which it urgently needs for performance and fitness. Consequences are quick exhaustion, light aggressiveness or loss of appetite.


How can you exercise arms while jogging ?

  • Unfortunately, arm muscles are hardly supported while jogging. Small dumbbells can be used to exercise these muscles a bit at least. Another possibility are wrist weights.


What effect does a cool-down have after a workout ?

  • Many metabolism end products (i.e. lactate) are built in the body while exercising. The body is supported in reducing these products by a cool-down at the end of a workout session. The phase of regeneration can be shortened. A session on an ergometer or crosstrainer for approximately 15 minutes is optimal for cooling down. However, choose the lowest level to slow down loosely the pulse.


Rope skipping - is it good for stamina ?

  • Absolutely. Strength, speed, and stamina are improved, because rope skipping causes a high energy consumption. Furthermore, calf muscles are optimally demanded by exercising rope skipping.


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